What Is a Herniated Disc?


Prolapsed discs are one of the most common health complaints heard by physicians. This is the condition of a vertebral disc pushing outside of its designated space, which typically puts pressure on nearby nerves.

A prolapsed disc can be caused from back trauma or regular back strain from heavy lifting. Researchers report some 5% of lower back pain is due to prolapsed discs. While a small percentage, this condition is one of the leading causes for back surgery. Other names often associated with prolapsed discs are herniated or bulging discs, even though each condition is slightly different. Diagnosis and treatment of all three are often similar.

Inter-vertebral discs are found between the bones — vertebrae — of the spinal cord. These bones, with discs sandwiched in between, are stacked to form the spinal column. All of these elements work together to protect the spinal cord and promote spinal motion. Inter-vertebral discs are made of a thick layer of tissue called the annulus fibrosus. The inner layer is liquid, called the nucleus pulposus.

When a disc is prolapsed, the inner liquid layer presses against the outer thick tissue layer, causing a bulge. This bulge presses on a spinal nerve root, causing pain, numbness, or weakness. The most common prolapsed discs are found in the lumbar, or lower, spine. They are also on occasion seen in the neck or cervical vertebrae. When a disc is prolapsed in the lumber spine, it can cause radiating nerve pain; the pain is actually felt in another area of the body, typically the lower extremities or groin.

Diagnosis of a prolapsed disc may include: an X-ray to eliminate other causes of pain, such as a fracture; a CT or MRI scan to produce images of the intervertebral discs and possibly nerve root compression; or a nerve conduction study.

Research shows some 90% of patients with low back pain will see improvement with conservative physical therapy, in addition to:

  • Lifestyle changes, including weight loss, a healthy diet, and regular exercise
  • Over-the-counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDS) for management of pain
  • Opioid medications or muscle relaxants for more severe pain
  • Epidural steroid injections

For the 10% of patients who do not respond to these conservative treatment options, surgery may be required to alleviate pressure on the nerve root and ease pain. The most common surgeries in this area are: open discectomy, micro-discectomy, and endoscopic options.

To prevent prolapsed discs, patients should practice good posture and use proper lifting techniques to avoid injuries and strains to the lower back.

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